The move comes after Beijing announced that inbound travellers will no longer be required to quarantine on arrival from Jan 8 after three years of strict pandemic control.
China abruptly lifted many of its harsh COVID-19 restrictions after nationwide protests and is seeing an unprecedented surge in infections.
Travellers from mainland China, or who have been there within seven days, will be required to test on arrival in Japan from Friday, Kishida said.
Those who test positive will be quarantined for seven days at designated facilities.
Tokyo will also cap flights coming from mainland China, Kishida said.
Japan only fully reopened to tourists in October after two-and-a-half years of COVID-19 restrictions that kept out almost all foreign travellers.
In November, 934,500 people visited Japan from overseas, around 40 per cent of the figures in the same month in pre-pandemic 2019.
In 2019, travellers from mainland China made up 30 per cent of inbound tourists visiting Japan.
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